WINSYS 2016 Abstracts


Area 1 - Sensor Networks and Ad Hoc Communications

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 30
Title:

Coverage Range Analysis of Wireless Technologies for Industrial Automation - System Overview and Performance Evaluation

Authors:

Armin Wulf, Lisa Underberg and Rüdiger Kays

Abstract: Reliable wireless communication is crucial to current and future industrial applications, but is however not yet applicable in many scenarios. Thus novel approaches are being investigated at the moment, from which three physical (PHY) layer technologies are depicted for detailed evaluation in this paper. Preceding the performance analysis, industrial application requirements and constraints as spatial extent, number of nodes, cycle time, PER and user data length are summarized. Error rates and coverage ranges are calculated and presented for Ultra Wide Band (UWB), Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and Parallel Sequence Spread Spectrum (PSSS) assuming an AWGN channel.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 6
Title:

Wireless Sensor Network Microcantilever Data Processing using Principal Component and Correlation Analysis

Authors:

Viktor Zaharov, Angel Lambertt and Ali Passian

Abstract: One of the main purpose of the wireless sensor network is an identification of unknown physical, chemical and biological agents in monitoring area. It requires the measurement of the microcantilever sensor resonance frequencies with high precision. However, resolving the weak spectral variations in dynamic response of materials that are either dominated or excited by stochastic processes remains a challenge. In this paper we present the analysis and experimental results of the resonant excitation of a microcantilever sensor system (MSS) by the ambient random fluctuations. In our analysis, the dynamic process is decomposed into the bases of orthogonal functions with random coefficients using principal component analysis (PCA) and Karhunen- Lo`eve theorem to obtain pertinent frequency shifts and spectral peaks. We show that using the truncated Karhunen-Lo`eve Transform helps significantly increase the resolution of resonance frequency peaks compared to those obtained with conventional Fourier Transform processing.

Paper Nr: 10
Title:

A Random Priority based Scheduling Strategy for Wireless Sensor Networks using Contiki

Authors:

Sajid M. Sheikh, Riaan Wolhuter and Herman A. Engelbrecht

Abstract: In recent years, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have experienced a number of implementations in various implementations which include smart home networks, smart grids, smart medical monitoring, telemetry networks and many more. The Contiki operating system for wireless sensor networks which utilises carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) does not provide differentiated services to data of different priorities and treats all data with equal priority. Many sensor nodes in a network are responsible not only for sending their sensed data, but also forwarding data from other nodes to the destination. In this paper we propose a novel priority data differentiation medium access control (MAC) strategy to provide differentiated services called Random Weighted Scheduling (RWS). The strategy was implemented and tested on the FIT IoT-lab testbed. The strategy shows a reduction in packet loss compared to the default CSMA/CA scheduling strategy in IEEE802.15.4 WSNs when carrying data of different priority levels.

Paper Nr: 12
Title:

Simulation and Testbed Evaluation for Optimizing Energy Consumption in Ad Hoc Networks based on OLSR Protocol

Authors:

Santiago González, Pau Arce and Juan Carlos Guerri

Abstract: This paper presents a proposal to optimize energy consumption in ad hoc networks based on the OLSR protocol. This approach focuses on the set up of routes with less congestion level and higher energy capacity. Therefore, in addition to the remaining energy of nodes, a new metric is introduced, the strategic value, which reports the importance of a specific node in the network based on the numbers of neighbors it has. In order to obtain valuable results, the evaluation was performed in a simulation environment (NS3) and on a real testbed. In that sense, an actual ad hoc network was implemented using embedded devices (Raspberry Pi). Results show a decrease in energy consumption, especially in zones with the highest device density, as well as an increase of the time of operation for nodes with higher amount of neighbors. Additionally, the performed evaluation shows a positive effect in the quality of traffic flows, avoiding route breakages and packet losses.

Paper Nr: 21
Title:

Reducing Transmitted Bits in a Memoryless RFID Anti-collision Protocol

Authors:

Nikola Cmiljanic, Hugo Landaluce, Asier Perallos and Laura Arjona

Abstract: The use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technologies is growing. RFID enables data to be collected from many objects, for identification and other purposes. One of the main disadvantages in tag identification, known as the tag collision problem, is becoming significant, since it leads to the increase in the number of transmitted bits and identification time. The window methodology is created with the aim to manage the number of transmitted bits by the tags. As a result, tags transmit exclusively the bits defined by the window instead of sending their full ID value on every response. This paper presents a protocol with a standardized window. The window size is transmitted as the exponent of power of 2. Simulations show that the proposed solution with standarized window size reduces the number of bits transmitted by the reader, with respect to other protocols using the window, which results in a lower number of total bits in the identification process.

Paper Nr: 36
Title:

Secret Sharing Scheme and Key Sharing Scheme Suitable for Clustered Sensor Networks

Authors:

Shinichi Goto, Keiichi Iwamura, Yuji Suga and Kitahiro Kaneda

Abstract: A clustered sensor network collects two or more nodes and makes a cluster from them. Generally a cluster head (CH) has all the encryption keys of the nodes in a cluster and performs encrypted communication. However, this type of network has a problem in that the keys are revealed if the CH is analyzed every time after key sharing. Moreover, when all the nodes are set to CH, another problem arises, which is the need for large storage for holding the keys of all the nodes in a cluster. In this paper, we propose the first key sharing scheme that carries out key sharing with the CH and each node in a cluster and that realizes information theoretical security using a secret sharing scheme, even if the CH is analyzed except for the time of encryption communication. Next, we propose the second key sharing scheme in which additional storage for the CH for saving the keys of all the nodes in a cluster is not needed. In order to realize it, the secret sharing scheme is improved and the security is evaluated. In addition, we present the third key sharing scheme in which none of the keys are revealed at all even if CH or all the child nodes are analyzed.

Posters
Paper Nr: 9
Title:

The Impact of Transmission Opportunity (TXOP) on the Performance of Priority based Contention based Scheduling Strategies in Multi-hop Mesh Networks

Authors:

Sajid M. Sheikh, Riaan Wolhuter and Herman A. Engelbrecht

Abstract: Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) face multiple problems. An increase in the number of hops for packets to reach the destination results in an increase in contention for the medium which also results in an increase in the collision rates. The enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA) mechanism was developed to provide differentiated services to data with different priority levels in the IEEE 802.11e standard. The EDCA is a distributed, contention-based channel access mechanism of the hybrid coordination function (HCF) which results in an unfairness problem where higher priority data can starve lower priority data. We adopt the EDCA architecture for heterogeneous data in telemetry and IoT applications to address these problems of EDCA in multi-hop mesh networks. An adaptive weighted round robin (AWRR) scheduling strategy has been proposed and tested on multi-hop networks in our previous work. With the AWRR strategy, although packet loss is reduced, the end-to-end delay increases with high and medium priority data compared to EDCA in WMNs. In this paper we investigate the effect of the Transmission Opportunity (TXOP) bursting on the global performance in a WMN through setting up simulations in OMNeT++ using the INETMANET framework. Simulation results have shown that using TXOP–bursting in the priority based scheduling which follows the concept of schedule before backup helps reduce packet loss as well as reduce the end-to-end delay. TXOP further optimizes the performance of AWRR.

Paper Nr: 28
Title:

A Metropolitan Area Living Lab based on a Wireless Sensor Network

Authors:

Jorge Arturo Pardiñas-Mir, Luis Rizo-Dominguez, Luis Eduardo Pérez-Bernal, Tino Hohler and Marino Esteban Pérez-Dorador

Abstract: This paper presents a Living Lab based on a wireless sensor network with a metropolitan area dimension. It is an experimental infrastructure providing real conditions to facilitate the development and testing of technological solutions in the context of a smart city in subjects such as wireless sensor networks, wireless data transmission, web services, software analytics and visualization systems. The first stage of the Lab is the development of a base target application for sensing the environmental conditions at various locations in an urban area.

Area 2 - Wireless and Mobile Technologies

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 18
Title:

Self-Diagnosing Low Coverage and High Interference in 3G/4G Radio Access Networks based on Automatic RF Measurement Extraction

Authors:

M. Sousa, A. Martins and P. Vieira

Abstract: This paper presents a new approach for automatic detection of low coverage and high interference scenarios (overshooting and pilot pollution) in Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) /Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks. These algorithms, based on periodically extracted Drive Test (DT) measurements (or network trace information), identify the problematic cluster locations and compute harshness metrics, at cluster and cell level, quantifying the extent of the problem. Future work is in motion by adding self-optimization capabilities to the algorithms, which will automatically suggest physical and parameter optimization actions, based on the already developed harshness metrics. The proposed algorithms were validated for a live network urban scenario. 830 3rd Generation (3G) cells were self-diagnosed and performance metrics were computed. The most negative detected behaviors regards high interference control and not coverage verification.

Paper Nr: 29
Title:

An Efficient Approach for Capacity Savings using Load Balancing in Dual Layer 3G Wireless Networks

Authors:

Tiago Pedro, André Martins, Antonio Rodrigues and Pedro Vieira

Abstract: In order to survive in a highly competitive market, mobile network operators have to be as efficient as possible in managing their resources. This is particularly relevant in what concerns the capacity available at their sites. This work aims to give the operators a method to improve longevity of their sites. This was achieved using a Load Balancing algorithm, which takes into consideration the Channel Element usage of sites and sets an Received Signal Code Power threshold value for each one. Its evaluation is done by using a Traffic Forecast algorithm, based on a fitting method, in order to obtain an estimate of when the sites’ capacity limit is reached, before and after applying Load Balancing. The used input data consisted of real traffic statistics, including geo-located indicators. During the course of this work it was possible to develop a semi-automatic method for network optimization using geo-located data, thus making a contribute to the development of national research on Self-Organizing Networks. This project was developed in collaboration with a Portuguese telecommunications consulting company, Celfinet, which provided valuable supervision and guidance. Using the suggested method it is predicted that, after a year of implementation, it is possible to achieve savings of about 70% in capacity expansions in the network.

Paper Nr: 38
Title:

HITH: Hybrid IP Traceback for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

Authors:

Ikbel Daly, Faouzi Zarai, M. S. Obaidat, K. F. Hsiao and Lotfi Kamoun

Abstract: The Denial of Service attack becomes increasingly vulnerable with heterogeneous wireless networks. Thus, it is fundamental to identify the source of attack by the execution of an IP traceback technique. There are two major categories: packet marking and packet logging. The first approach moderates the problem of overhead, but requires a large amount of packets to reconstruct the attack path. In packet logging, saving packets in digest tables enables the identification of attack source through a single packet but necessitates a huge storage space. In this paper, we propose a novel Hybrid IP Traceback for Heterogeneous wireless networks, which is called HITH (Hybrid IP Traceback for Heterogeneous wireless network). Our solution presents a precise IP traceback method with low overhead storage and improved accuracy. Indeed, the mathematical analysis and the comparison with existing solutions prove the capacity to trace a single IP packet while reducing storage overhead and data access time.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 17
Title:

A Hybrid Neighbor Optimization Algorithm for SON based on Network Topology, Handover Counters and RF Measurements

Authors:

D. Duarte, A. Martins, P. Vieira and A. Rodrigues

Abstract: With the increasing complexity of current wireless networks, it became evident the need for Self-Organizing Networks (SON), which aims to automate most of the associated radio planning and optimization tasks. Within SON, this paper aims to optimize the Neighbor Cell List (NCL) for radio network cells. An algorithm composed by three decision criteria was developed: geographic localization and orientation, according network topology, Radio Frequency (RF) measurements collected by drive-tests or traces and Performance Management (PM) counters from Handover (HO) statistics. The first decision, proposes a new NCL taking into account the Base Station (BS) location and interference tiers, based on the quadrant method. The last two decision criteria consider signal strength and interference level measurements and HO statistics in a time period, respectively. They also define a priority to each cell and added, kept or removed neighbor relation, based on user defined constraints. The algorithms were developed and implemented over new radio network optimization professional tool. Several case studies were produced using real data from a mobile operator.

Paper Nr: 32
Title:

A New Queue Length based Scheduling Strategy for nrtPS Service Class in IEEE 802.16 Networks

Authors:

Pallavi Grover and Marcio Andrey Teixeira

Abstract: IEEE 802.16 standard is designed to provide services to various types of multimedia applications. It supports real-time and non-real-time service classes. With such a large volume of traffic, a new strategy needed to be developed for the non-real-time service class, since there have been limited studies in this area. In this paper, a new queue length based scheduling strategy for the non-real-time service class is proposed. The proposed algorithm is developed on the basis of virtual queue’s and counter scheme’s, aiming at ensuring minimum bandwidth for non-real-time applications.

Posters
Paper Nr: 7
Title:

Channel Allocation in Cognitive Radio Networks using Evolutionary Technique

Authors:

Vinesh Kumar, Sanjay K. Dhurandher, Bhagyashri Tushir and Mohammad S. Obaidat

Abstract: Cognitive radio technology provides a platform at which licensed and unlicensed user share the spectrum. In spectrum sharing, interference plays an important role. Therefore, in this work, interference is considered as a parameter for spectrum sharing between licensed and unlicensed users. The authors in this work proposed a novel channel allocation technique using Non-dominated set of solutions according to following objectives: maximum SINR, probability for maximum SINR and maximum free time of channels. The Non-dominated set of solutions has been calculated using Naive and Slow method. The simulation analysis further shows that the proposed technique outperforms the existing technique in terms of throughput and utilization by 65.47% and 47.31% respectively.

Area 3 - Mobile Software and Services

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 22
Title:

Mobile Application Usage Concentration in a Multidevice World

Authors:

Benjamin Finley, Tapio Soikkeli and Kalevi Kilkki

Abstract: Mobile applications are a ubiquitous part of modern mobile devices. However the concentration of mobile application usage has been primarily studied only in the smartphone context and only at an aggregate level. In this work we examine the app usage concentration of a detailed multidevice panel of US users that includes smartphones, tablets, and personal computers. Thus we study app usage concentration at both an aggregate and individual device level and we compare the app usage concentration of different device types. We detail a variety of novel results. For example we show that the level of app usage concentration is not correlated between smartphones and tablets of the same user. Thus extrapolation between a user’s devices might be difficult. Overall, the study results emphasize the importance of a multidevice and multilevel approach.

Paper Nr: 27
Title:

Presence Analytics: Density-based Social Clustering for Mobile Users

Authors:

Muawya Habib Sarnoub Eldaw, Mark Levene and George Roussos

Abstract: We demonstrate how social density-based clustering of WLAN traces can be utilised to detect granular social groups of mobile users within a university campus. Furthermore, the ability to detect such social groups, which can be linked to the learning activities taking place at target locations, provides an invaluable opportunity to understand the presence and movement of people within such an environment. For example, the proposed density-based clustering procedure, which we call Social-DBSCAN, has real potential to support human mobility studies such as the optimisation of space usage strategies. It can automatically detect the academic term period, the classes, and the attendance data. From a large Eduroam log of an academic site, we chose as a proof concept, selected locations with known capacity for the evaluation of our proposed method, which we successfully utilise to detect the regular learning activities at those locations, and to provide accurate estimates about the attendance levels over the academic term period.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 16
Title:

Introducing Redundancy in the Radio Planning of LPWA Networks for Internet of Things

Authors:

Pedro Vieira, André Martins and Tiago Cunha

Abstract: This paper presents an enhanced methodology in order to introduce redundancy requirements in the LowPower Wide-Area (LPWA) networks radio planning for Internet-of-Things (IoT). The Jake’s Curves were extended, allowing to compute new log-normal fading margins which traduce combined coverage and redundancy requirements. The methodology was applied developing a LPWA SIGFOX network simulator for a typical urban environment. The double and triple redundancy requirement produced a 10 dB increase in the log-normal fading margin, reducing the cell range to one half, which roughly quadruples the site density. In fact, assuring redundancy enhances the networks’s quality of experience, but strongly increases the network investment in base-station equipment and site acquisition. This new approach allowed to compute new site grids and to introduce the concept of assisted planning for IoT networks, where the most suitable candidates among a site list will be automatically chosen, avoiding the inefficient and ineffective trial and error method in radio planning.