WINSYS 2012 Abstracts


Area 1 - Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 7
Title:

Authentication Optimization for Vertical Handover in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

Authors:

Ikram Smaoui, Faouzi Zarai , Mohammad S. Obaidat and Lotfi Kamoun

Abstract: In this paper, we present a scheme for reducing vertical handover delay in heterogeneous wireless networks by optimizing the network access authentication procedure as it is a heavy burden due to its latencies and overhead. Indeed, optimizing the authentication procedure while at the same time providing the same or best level of security represents a key factor in the design of the next generation of heterogeneous wireless networks. In this context, the aim of our work in this paper is to provide a security framework accounting for heterogeneity in wireless access networks without degrading the security level currently provided by each wireless system. We also demonstrate using simulation analysis the handover performance improvement provided by our proposed security frame work.

Paper Nr: 53
Title:

Knowledge Acquisition System based on JSON Schema - Implementation of a HCI for Actuation of Biosignals Acquisition Systems

Authors:

Nuno Costa, Tiago Araujo, Neuza Nunes and Hugo Gamboa

Abstract: Large amounts of data, increasing every day, are stored and transferred through the internet. These data are normally weakly structured making information disperse, uncorrelated, non-transparent and difficult to access and share. Semantic Web, proposed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), addresses this problem by promoting semantic structured data, like ontologies, enabling machines to perform more work involved in finding, combining, and acting upon information on the web. Pursuing this vision, a Knowledge Acquisition System was created, written in JavaScript using JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) as the data structure and JSON Schema to define that structure, enabling new ways of acquiring and storing knowledge semantically structured. A novel Human Computer Interaction framework was developed with this knowledge system, enabling the end user to, practically, configure all kinds of electrical devices and control them. With the data structured by a Schema, the software becomes robust, error – free and human readable. To show the potential of this tool, the end user can configure an electrostimulator, surpassing the specific use of many Electrophysiology software. Therefore, we provide a tool for clinical, sports and investigation where the user has the liberty to produce their own protocols by sequentially compile electrical impulses.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 10
Title:

From Farm to Fork: Traceability based on RFID - A Proposal for Complete Traceability in the Wine Sector

Authors:

Iñigo Cuiñas, Isabel Expósito, José Antonio Gay-Fernández, Ana V. Alejos and Manuel G. Sánchez

Abstract: This paper highlights the objectives and activities of the European project “RFID from Farm to Fork”, which is focused on the food industry traceability. The final goal is to extend the traceability information to the final consumer, so these persons could feel the confidence on the food origin like our grandparents did when they lived in a less globalised World. The activities of the project in a winery at Ribeiro denomination of origin (Spain) at both vineyards (by means of wireless sensor networks) and the wine production process (by RFID technology) are also presented along the paper, in order to show some of the project outcomes.

Paper Nr: 14
Title:

Using Radio Frequency Identification Technology to Track Individual Wine Bottles

Authors:

Isabel Expósito, Iñigo Cuiñas and Paula Gómez

Abstract: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has been tested and it is now proposed to be used in applications as food traceability, instead of the traditional barcode, as that could get advantages of its inherent characteristics: automatic management and distance readability. Among food industries, wine production represents an added value sector and so it would be a target to implement RFID. Wine bottles present some problems to the radio propagation, as liquids are not electromagnetically friend materials. Thus, a large radio electric measurement campaign has been performed in order to deal with the possible mismatches in using this technology to trace wine bottles from the wine cellars to the final consumer. The performance of different RFID tag models, as well as the effect of the wine content within the bottle, is analysed along the paper, trying to identify the better technological solution. The tests indicate that the use of RFID methods would be suitable to allow the consumer to obtain complete traceability information from each wine bottle, and the producer to track its products. The proposal opens the door to new possibilities in the relationship between consumer and producer, by demonstrating the possibility of using a new technology in a traditional market.

Paper Nr: 23
Title:

Performance Evaluation for TCP in Tactical Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors:

Jonas Karlsson, Velizar G. Dimitrov, Andreas Kassler, Anna Brunstrom, Jan Nilsson and Anders Hansson

Abstract: Tactical networks are used in military and rescue operations to provide timely and accurate information to operating teams. Tactical networks have traditionally used long distance narrow band radio links. However, although these links provide robust real-time communication the limited bandwidth makes them less suited for high data-rate applications. To support high-data rate TCP applications such as providing digital images and maps, emerging tactical networks use shorter range but higher data-rate wide band radio links and multihop. Due to the requirement of cheap up-front cost, most MANET research has focused on Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) networks. However, in tactical networks, where bounded delays are important, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) can give better possibility to support the Quality of Service needed for real-time communication. The purpose of this paper is to assess and compare the throughput of three state-of-the-art TCP versions and two routing protocols over TDMA based MANETs.

Paper Nr: 25
Title:

Design of Soft Computing based Black Hole Detection in MANET

Authors:

D. Vydeki, K. S. Sujatha and R. S. Bhuvaneswaran

Abstract: Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) are more vulnerable to attacks than the generic wireless network due to the lack of an underlying infrastructure and shared medium. Intrusion Detection System (IDS) provides an enhanced level of security to such networks. Application of Soft computing techniques to the detection process is proved to be more suitable as they have human-like decision-making capabilities. This paper proposes a hybrid intrusion detection system for MANETs that detects black hole attack, by combining anomaly and specification-approaches of IDS. The proposed system aims at designing two different IDS using the two fundamental soft computing mechanisms such as, Fuzzy and Genetic Algorithm (GA). The design of each IDS is tested with simulated MANETs for various traffic conditions. The performance of each system is compared based on the true and false positive rates. The experimental results show that the fuzzy based system produces 81.8% true positive rate and the GA based system results in a 100% efficient detection.

Paper Nr: 32
Title:

Improved NetArgus - A Suite of Wi-fi Positioning & SNMP Monitor

Authors:

Tryfon Theodorou, George Violettas, Antigoni Polychroniadou and Christos Georgiadis

Abstract: In this paper, field research was conducted in order to enrich and strengthen the “NetArgus” application that is able to monitor either a wired or a wireless network with all its possible aspects. Original algorithms were implemented in an effort to find the position of a moving station utilizing the signal level of wireless local area network (WLAN) devices. Exhausting sampling and research were done, in order to resolve various practical problems associated with the signal level of the wireless stations as well as the involved hardware. Various flaws and omissions of 802.11x protocols were discovered, such as the lack of definition of the signal level and its width range. Moreover, a plethora of positioning practical problems has been adequately managed. Hence, an application was constructed to draw paths and manipulate proper information from various network moving clients, using the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) as well as low level operating system libraries. Last but not least, “Kalman Filter” was implemented and fully tested in order to correct the positioning unavoidable mistakes.

Paper Nr: 49
Title:

Patient Monitoring based on Mobile Sensor Network

Authors:

Eliasz Kańtoch

Abstract: Mobile sensor networks offer opportunities to monitor state of health without constraining the activities of a wearer. These mobile systems are now realizable due to miniaturization of integrated circuits, low power microcontrollers and wireless communications. This paper presents a design of mobile sensor network patient monitoring system based on several health status and movement monitoring sensors including ECG, GPS and accelerometer. Key functionalities of the software include calculating and displaying the values of heart rate variability parameters and movement patterns. Detection of QRS is based on Pan-Tompkins algorithm. Algorithms detect non-standard situation and in case of emergency sends an SMS to a selected number. System uses Android smartphone as a gateway to forward patient electronic health record to medical web server, where data are available via graphical web-based user interface.

Posters
Paper Nr: 12
Title:

Bandwidth Analysis of the Ubiquitous Video Conferencing Application

Authors:

Neil Arellano, Aleksander Milshteyn, Eric Diaz, Sergio Mendoza, Helen Boussalis and Charles Liu

Abstract: The CSULA SPACE Center has endeavoured to develop the Semantic Information System (SIS) Network for real-time project collaboration. However, the lack of uniform, real-time communication platform application poses an inconvenience to the project collaborators, as they would be driven towards third-party communication applications, such as Skype, MSN, Yahoo Messenger, etc. The use of these commercial products does not incorporate moderation features between the network participants. In addition, these applications have various conference capacity limitations and their simultaneous multi-device sign-in feature can lead to possible concerns with information security (Alegre, 2009). The Ubiquitous Video Conferencing (UVC) application has been designed specifically for the SIS Network in order to provide its participants with dedicated multimedia channels and interactive communication. It is built on the integration of Qt libraries, audio/video codec libraries of FFMPEG, and the image-processing library Open Computer Vision. This paper presents the UVC application within the Semantic Information System Model and focuses on issues related to real-time bandwidth regulation.

Paper Nr: 42
Title:

New Mobility Metric based on MultiPoint Relay Life Duration

Authors:

Ali Ouacha, Noureddine Lakki, Ahmed Habbani and Jamal El Abbadi

Abstract: Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) is a proactive protocol designed to operate inMobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET). In this protocol, the topology is based on MultiPoint Relay (MPR) Mechanism. However, the loss of one or many MPRs caused by their movement affects the link state of the network. Therefore, the contribution of this paper is to keep the network links between the nodes and MPRs in stable state as long as possible. It was done by calculating a new parameter named Average Age of Death which estimates the life duration ofMPRs. The experimental results illustrate that this parameter is affected by the environment (speed of node, network density and others). This result provides to use this parameter as a new mobility metric that can be used in the MPR sets Calculation.

Area 2 - Wireless and Mobile Technologies

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 1
Title:

Optimal MAC PDU Size in ARQ-enabled Connections in IEEE 802.16e/WiMAX Systems

Authors:

Oran Sharon and Yaron Alpert

Abstract: In this paper we address an aspect of the mutual influence between the PHY layer budding blocks (FEC blocks) and the MAC level allocations in the Uplink and Downlink of IEEE 802.16e/WiMAX systems, In these systems it is possible to transmit MAC level frames, denoted MAC PDUs, such that a PDU contains an integral number of fixed size Data Blocks. We compute the optimal size of a PDU that maximizes the Goodput of the PDU. The Goodput depends on the success probability of the PDU, which in turn depends on the FEC blocks over which the PDU is allocated. We then compare among the maximum PDU Goodputs in different sizes of the FEC blocks and the Data Blocks. The main outcome is that the PDU Goodput is sensitive only in the case where Data Blocks are very large. We also give guidelines on how to choose the best Modulation/Coding Scheme (MCS) to use in a scenario where the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) can change significantly during transmissions, in order to maximize the PDU Goodput.

Paper Nr: 19
Title:

Improving the Reliability of a Train Positioning System through the Use of Full Coverage Radio Communication Technologies - Performance Study of a TETRA Network to Transmit Position Information

Authors:

Roberto Carballedo, Pablo Fernández, Unai Hernández Jayo and Asier Perallos

Abstract: Today, it is common for trains to incorporate autonomous positioning systems based on geo-location technologies similar to those used on road transportation. These positioning systems represent a cost effective solution for railway companies operating in not evolved regions. Furthermore, these positioning systems can enhance the reliability of positioning systems based on the occupation of the tracks (which are most used in the most developed regions). Autonomous positioning systems calculate the position of the train, but the position has to be sent from the train to the control center. GPRS/3G mobile technologies and WiFi radio technologies are the most common technologies for transmitting the position to the control centers. These technologies do not guarantee 100% coverage in certain areas such as tunnels or mountainous regions. This paper presents the results of the tests on an autonomous positioning system to add a new communications technology in order to increase its coverage. This technology is TETRA, which is a radio technology that has been traditionally used for voice transmission, but it can be a good complement to GPRS/3G when there is no coverage.

Paper Nr: 24
Title:

Investigation of a Radio Propagation Model for Vegetation Scatter Dynamic Channels at BFWA Frequencies

Authors:

Sérgio Morgadinho, Juergen Richter, Rafael F. S. Caldeirinha and Telmo R. Fernandes

Abstract: The successful deployment of wireless technologies in the micro- and millimetre frequencies relies on the understanding of radio channel propagation and accurate radio propagation models. To this extent, the dynamic effects of vegetation on radio signals are investigated, as a function of wind direction, receiver location and vegetation depth. Furthermore, a radio propagation model, based on the RET, is investigated as an approach to predict the channel dynamic effects of vegetation scatter at 20 GHz. The model is evaluated for a structured forest medium, and its performance is assessed through the use of primary, secondary and error quantification statistics.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 2
Title:

Efficient Coupled PHY and MAC Use of Physical Bursts in WiMAX/IEEE 802.16e Networks

Authors:

Oran Sharon, Gassan Tabajah and Yaron Alpert

Abstract: We address several issues related to the efficient use of Bursts in WiMAX/IEEE 802.16e systems. We look on the relation between the PHY layer budding blocks (FEC blocks ) and the allocation of MAC level frames (PDUs) over these FEC blocks. In particular, we show how to transmit a given amount of MAC level data bits over a given Burst in order to maximize the number of successfully transmitted data bits in the Burst. We also compute, given an amount of data bits to transmit, what is the Burst size that maximizes each of the following three performance criterion: the number of successfully transmitted data bits in the Burst, the maximum ratio between the number of successfully transmitted data bits to the Burst size, and the number of successfully transmitted data bits per PHY slot. For the first problem the paper shows how to optimally divide the Burst into PDUs and shows that sometimes it is more efficient to use less reliable Modulation/Coding schemes. For the second problem the paper shows that using the PHY slots efficiently is the best criterion to consider.

Paper Nr: 17
Title:

Implementation of the COST 273 Directional Channel Model in Microcell Scenarios

Authors:

Ivo Sousa, Maria Paula Queluz and António Rodrigues

Abstract: This paper presents a tutorial on how to implement the COST 273 Directional Channel Model (DCM) for microcell scenarios. Special care has been taken to present all the parameters models and values required by the DCM, being some of them proposed in this work because they were missing in the related literature and are essential. The results and comparison with experimental data of an implementation example are also presented, which prove that this DCM is suitable for wireless systems development, especially those that exploit spatial aspects of radio channels, like for example Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems.

Paper Nr: 47
Title:

Extended Low-density Parity-check Codes for Cooperative Diversity

Authors:

Hussain Ali and Maan Kousa

Abstract: Cooperative diversity or user cooperation achieves the diversity gain without adding physical antennas to the users. The users work in cooperative fashion using their single antennas to create a virtual multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna system. The diversity gain achieved by cooperative diversity can be further improved using error correction codes. Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are linear block codes with good error correction capabilities. We present a novel approach using extended LDPC codes to increase the diversity gain in cooperative diversity.

Paper Nr: 51
Title:

Sustainable Rural Areas - Network-based Architecture

Authors:

Farnaz Farid, Chun Ruan and Seyed Shahrestani

Abstract: Communication technologies and broadband networks offer interesting solutions for improving human quality of life. However, the improvements are less prominent in the rural areas and in developing countries. Partially, this may be related to cultural and social acceptance of such technologies in rural areas. It can also be associated with the lack of a proper architecture for utilization of such technologies in those areas. This work in progress is an attempt in developing such architecture. It is based on mapping of existing or upcoming information and communication technologies to services and applications needed for sustainable rural areas. Based on analysis of the existing infrastructure and technical requirements, we show that wireless and cellular technologies are the most suitable choices for this purpose. Integrating these points, a network-based architecture, referred to as eVillage, is designed. To investigate the underlying issues, simulation studies for several interactive services in such an environment, using OPNET are then carried out. These studies show that the proposed architecture is capable of supporting a reasonable number of clients while meeting basic Quality of Service requirements.

Paper Nr: 52
Title:

QoE – Based Scheduling in WiMAX Networks

Authors:

Kalypso Magklara, Aggeliki Sgora, Dimitrios D. Vergados and Dimitris J. Vergados

Abstract: Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) networks provide wireless broadband internet access, interoperability, while decrease the entrance barrier in mobile communications sector, and offer services comparable to those of the emerging 4G technology. Τhe standard 802.16, upon which WiMAX networks are based, has not designated any particular scheduling algorithm, allowing each provider to develop its own. However, existing scheduling algorithms take into account the Quality of Service (QoS), fairness and other parameters, but do not provide Quality of Experience (QoE). For this reason, in this paper two different approaches are proposed in order to provide QoE, especially for the rtPS WiMAX service. Simulation results show that by applying different policies the QoE provided to the WiMAX users is improved.

Posters
Paper Nr: 3
Title:

Differential Space Time Block Codes for High Mobility Scenarios

Authors:

Benigno Rodríguez

Abstract: In this paper the advantages of using a particular class of Differential Space Time Block Codes (DSTBCs) in high mobility scenarios are reported. This is a high bandwidth efficiency technique with specially good performance when the mobile terminal velocity is high. For Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) based systems in high mobility scenarios, as the ones that can be considered for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) and Long Term Evolution (LTE), the analyzed technique reports improvements of up to 14 dB with respect to the use of 64PSK in DSTBCs.

Area 3 - Mobile Software and Services

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 6
Title:

Quality of Experience Evaluation for Data Services over Cellular Networks

Authors:

Gerardo Gómez, Esther de Torres, Javier Lorca, Raquel García, Quiliano Pérez and Estefanía Arias

Abstract: This paper presents an end-to-end service performance evaluation method that is able to estimate both the Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) associated to different data services over cellular networks. A set of performance indicators are evaluated at each layer of the terminal’s protocol stack following a bottom-up process from the physical layer up to the application layer. Then, specific utility functions for each data service are used to map QoS into QoE in terms of Mean Opinion Score (MOS). Three different data services (web browsing, video YouTube and Skype-based voice over IP) have been evaluated in this paper under different network and terminal configurations. Performance results show that the MOS associated to a particular data service is largely affected by the radio level performance (error rate, throughput and delay), so proper protocols’ configuration is a key issue to maximize the QoE.

Posters
Paper Nr: 46
Title:

Student Experience - Issues of Wireless Access and Cloud Deployment in Higher Education

Authors:

Vladlena Benson and Stephanie Morgan

Abstract: Universal move to wireless learning enabled through mobile apps has been evident over the last eighteen months in the higher education (HE) sector. Penetration rate of smart phones amongst students have reached a record high. Universities are investing in mobile applications enabling wireless access to current Learning Management Systems (LMS), while carefully considering benefits of the cloud for secure and flexible provision of LMS services. Capabilities of wireless devices present issues of access, presentation and compatibility of e-learning materials, while cloud infrastructure as a service raises concerns of security as data is hosted by third parties outside of the corporate firewalls. The research questions are presented for discussion through the lens of the student experience. A case of a successful move to mobile learning enablement and cloud deployment concludes the paper and opens a discussion on critical success factors in wireless e-learning operations.